Contamination of Aquatic Ecosystem and Conservation Measures for Sustainable Development

(With special reference to Impact assessment of idol immersion in upper lake , Bhopal)

Dr. Bilquees Khan*
Dr. Urvashi Parmar**
Ms.Tasneem Khan***

Introduction

The requirement of water is in all lives i.e. from micro-organisms to man, is a serious problem today because all water resources have been reached to a point of crisis due to unplanned urbanization and industrialization . The major concern here is pollution of water. It was recognised that mankind, animals and plants, all face a variety of problems arising from various kinds of environmental pollution (petak 1988). By their very nature, conservation measures are never one- time activities. The sustainability of the measures must be ensured for a long period, in order to achieve fruitful results.  “Sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. It contains within it two key concepts: first ,the concept of needs, in particular the essential needs of the world’s poor, to which overriding priority should be given; and second ,the idea of limitations imposed by the state of technology and social organization on the environment’s ability to meet present and future needs.”

Study Area

The study area is upper lake of Bhopal. Upper Lake (Lat. 32º6É – 23º16’N, Longitude 77º18′- 77º23’E) situated in Bhopal, was created by Raja Bhoj in 11 century. The Lake has large catchment area of 361 sq.km

Materials and Method

Sampling was done from two idol immersion sites of Upper Lake, Sehore Naka as (UL1) and Prempura (UL2) from both sampling station samples collected from surface and bottom so being mentioned by UL1S, UL1S and UL2S, UL2B. The water samples were collected from the site of idol immersion at different intervals i.e. Pre immersion, during immersion and Post immersion. Pre-idol immersion samples were collected a week before the immersion activities. During idol immersion samples were collected in during immersion activities. Post-idol immersion samples were collected 15 days after the completion of immersion activities. The samples were subjected to Physico-chemical analysis following the procedures prescribed by standard methods.

Pre, During and Post Idol Immersion Assessment of Water Collected from Idol Immersion Sites, Upper Lake, Bhopal in the year 2015.

S.
No.

Parameters

Pre Immersion
Sampling  Station

During Immersion
Sampling  Station

Post Immersion
Sampling  Station

UL1

UL2

UL1

UL2

UL1

UL2

S

B

S

B

S

B

S

B

S

B

S

B

1

pH

8.62

8.76

8

7.5

8.5

8.5

7.5

7.5

7.5

8.5

8.5

7.9

2

Water Temp oC

29.6

26.4

29

27

31

29

30

29

31

28

30

28

3

Colour(pt. co. unit)

32

44

32

78

64

71

200

166

126

132

251

253

4

Turbidity
(F.A.U.)

4

6

16

18

8

9

30

274

19

21

36

34

5

Conductivity

0.24

0.31

0.54

0.62

0.87

0.79

1.21

1.34

0.91

0.98

1.74

1.96

6

Total Dissolved Solids (mg/l)

483.2

498.2

458.1

479.7

572

589

486

498

684

692

481

499

7

Free CO2 (mg/l)

2

6

2

8

4

10

4

8

14

16

10

10

8

Dissolved Oxygen (mg/l)

7.6

4.4

0.8

0.4

5.2

2.8

0.8

2.8

0

0

0

0

9

Total hardness (mg/l)

84

112

112

124

156

182

164

150

308

270

174

162

10

Total Alkalinity (mg/l)

86

124

76

72

168

164

192

184

210

228

224

236

11

Bicarbonate (mg/l)

86

124

76

72

168

164

192

184

12

Calcium Hardness (mg/l)

64.6

76.6

96.9

74.2

138.6

161.7

117.6

107.1

294

262

120

118

13

Magnesium hardness (mg/l)

19.4

35.4

15.1

49.8

17.4

20.3

46.4

42.9

14

7.5

53.6

43.8

14

Chloride (mg/l)

25.96

23.96

30.96

32.96

27.97

25.97

40.95

45.95

29.99

26.95

48.99

54.86

15

Total Phosphorus(mg/l)

1.23

1.76

2.48

3.65

5.86

8.58

11.69

12.78

8.94

10.34

13.84

15.68

16

Ortho Phosphate (mg/l)

0.74

0.98

0.54

0.77

1.47

1.5

2.88

5.78

3.74

4.78

6.84

7.32

17

Organic

Phosphorus (mg/l)

0.49

0.78

1.93

2.87

4.38

7.93

8.8

6.99

5.19

5.55

6.89

8.35

18

Nitrate (mg/l)

0.22

0.36

6.24

0.35

0.66

0.6

0.45

0.87

2.34

2.74

1.27

1.77

19

COD (mg/l)

12

16

24

24

28

24

28

36

120

148

80

160

Curative Measures For Sustainable Development

The Government of Madhya Pradesh implemented an integrated lake conservation programme during 1995-2004 with the financial assistance of JBIC (Japan Bank of International Cooperation).The basic objective of the project was to improve the water quality as well as to increase the storage capacity of the lakes. The project activities involved both preventive and curative measures like increasing the storage capacity of the lake through de-silting, control of weed through de-weeding, prevention of pollution in the lake through diversion and treatment of sewage, catchment area protection through creation of buffer zone etc.

The Bhoj Wetlands of Bhopal comprises of the Upper Lake and the Lower Lake. These lakes are of immense importance since they are inseparably linked with the socio, economical and cultural aspects of the people of Bhopal and are referred as lifelines of the city. Developmental activity that affects its green cover and landscape should be prohibited, and developmental activities associated with human settlements in the catchment should be restricted; Stakeholder involvement, including lake-dependent communities and common people, should be an integral part of any management program.

The 11th Five Year National Development Plan (2007 – 2012) identifies strengthening water quality monitoring and increasing wastewater treatment capacity in urban areas as some of the priority issues. The National Environment Policy, 2006 has laid out plans for promoting integrated approaches to river basin management and water pollution abatement. The number of wetlands included in the Wetland Conservation Program has increased to 20 from 16 at the time of appraisal of the project. At the state level, a “Master Plan for Conservation and Management of Water Resources of Bhopal” was developed by the Lake Conservation Authority of Madhya Pradesh (LCA) in 2005. Lake conservation has therefore continued to attract attention at both the national and state levels.

The implementation of this project has provided basic infrastructure and framework for conservation of Lake Bhopal and other lakes in Madhya Pradesh and is consistent with ongoing lake conservation efforts. The project therefore remains highly relevant.

Conclusion

During the idol immersion, the water samples have been collected from all the immersion sites for pre during and post idol immersion. The water quality analysis of water samples collected from the identified immersion sites reveals that the water quality of the water body deteriorates at all the station after the immersion. The values of pH were recorded in mild alkaline range in the sample collected pre idol immersion at all stations which varies between 7.5 to 8.76 in the pre idol immersion sample, while the value of pH dropped down to slight acidic range during idol immersion and was recorded between 7.5 to 8.5, which further dropped down in the post idol immersion samples, in which it was recorded in a range of 7.5 to 8.5. The decomposition of organic matter in the water also increases the concentration of free CO2 in the water samples. The free CO2 was recorded less at many stations and the value of Free CO2 were recorded between 2 mg/l to 8 mg/l pre idol immersion, which increases to a range of 10 mg/l to 16 mg/l in post idol immersion samples. A comparison of values of pH and Free CO2 at immersion sites with reference point reveal that there is no significant change in the values of these parameters in samples collected pre and post idol immersion, which confirms that the deterioration in the water quality is because of the idol immersion. Thus from the water quality analysis carried out for the impact assessment of idol immersion activity of water quality of lakes reveal that the concentration of all the pollution indicating parameters recorded a significant increase after the idol immersion. Therefore it may be inferred that the idol immersion activity has a negative impact on the water quality of the water body wherein it is immersed.

The present study on assessment of idol immersion on physic-chemical characteristics of Upper lake revealed that idol immersion activity has negative impact on water quality of the lake. The input of biodegradable and non biodegradable substances deteriorates the lake water quality and enhances silt load in the lake (Dhote et al., 2001 Water conservation encompasses the policies, strategies and activities made to manage fresh water  as a sustainable resource, to protect the water environment, and to meet current and future human demand.

References

  1. APHA (1995): Standard methods for examination of water and wastewater, American Public Health Association, Washington, D.C., 19th Ed.
  2. Dhote S., Varghere B. and Mishra S.M. (2001) : Impact of Idol immersion on water quality of twin lakes of Bhopal. Indian Journal Environmental Protection, 21, 998-1005.
  3. ISI (1991): Indian Standard Specification for drinking water. IS 10500. ISI New Delhi
  4. Leland H.V. et al (1991): Transport and distribution of trace elements in a watershed ecosystem, in Environment. Ed. W.R. Boggess and B.G.Wixsion. Castel House Publication PP 105 – 134 (Not seen in original)
  5. Tamot S. and Sharma P. (2006): Physico – chemical status of Upper Lake (Bhopal, India) Water Quality with special reference to phosphate and nitrate concentration and their impact on Lake Ecosystem, Asian J. Exp. Sei 20(1), 151-158.
  6. WHO (1968): World Health Organization Teeh. Report Sr. No. 406.
  7. ICMR (1975): Manual of standards of quality for drinking water supplies Special report series No. 44, 2nd edition.
  8. Petak W.J. (1980): Environmental Planning and Management; The need for an integrative perspective, Environ Managem. 4, 287 – 295
  9. http://www.jica.go.jp/english/our_work/evaluation/oda_loan/post/2007/pdf/project32_full.pdf
  10. http://www.gwp.org/en/ToolBox/CASE-STUDIES/Asia/India-Conservation-and-management-of-Bhoj-Wetlands-329

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