Prof. Suparna Naresh*
Public figures in recent times have been increasingly on the lookout for Public Relations professionals to present them to their public with style and panache, successfully covering up a thousand misdemeanors from their past . Positive PR is strategically planned and thought out for the celebrity concerned by the PR machinery.
PR professionals and publicists are paid huge amounts of money to keep the stars of the film industry in the limelight, garnering positive footage twenty-four-seven. Wooing the public to reclaim and consolidate one’s position requires good public relations. This is not an American phenomenon. In India too film stars are no exception to this practice. Over the past few years many well known faces from the Hindi film industry have used PR strategies to propel themselves from the ‘much ignored’ to ‘the much renowned’. On occasions film personalities have sought the welcome intervention of their PR team to create a positive buzz around them to make the public forget their unsavory behavior.
This paper tries to look deeper into the phenomenon of ‘bad boy’ Salman becoming the’ poster boy’ of Bollywood today, to find out whether PR can really bring about a positive change in the career graph of an actor. The primary objective of this paper is to understand the power of Public Relations strategies used by celebrities such as actor Salman khan to create a positive image in the minds of the viewing public.
Public relations has been substituted with terms such as PR machinery, PR team, promotion, publicity to mean public relations strategy.
The power of public relations has been proved as an efficient means of winning public favour. The corporate world of America began to exploit the tools of PR in the 1920’s with AT&T establishing a clear monopoly over its customer base through an effective use of newspaper articles, corporate films, lectures, and other promotional activities. The political field too has seen its fair share of PR ‘wheeling and dealing’ with US President Woodrow Wilson being a chief proponent of ‘PR for political mileage’. His much publicized Committee on Public Information (CPI) worked wonders in the minds of the US public, winning him popularity and presence. The PR route to success was taken by President Roosevelt as well to persuade the American people to accept his New Deal policy.
For the past fifty odd years, Public Relations has been used extensively by the motion picture industry across the globe. In the 1930’s and 40’s PR was essentially a tool to create and maintain an image for contracted clients, an image which was carefully planned and had little to do with reality. It is a known fact today that many years ago PR agents and publicists worked their magic on a pharmacist’s son, got rid of all his awkwardness and gave the world a macho-man who is remembered to this day as John Wayne. Credit has to be given to similar successes by PR agents for the creation of the beautiful Lana Turner – from an average chubby school girl to being famously called the Venus of Hollywood. The Mumbai (previously Bombay) film industry or ‘Bollywood’ is making the shift from ‘super secretaries’ managing the star lives to professionally managed companies that manage the actors’ work schedule in a systematic manner devoid of the drama that surrounded this field a few years ago. In recent times, actors like Shah Rukh Khan, Hrithik Roshan, Salman Khan, Amitabh Bachchan, Priyanka Chopra and Aamir Khan have employed the services of dedicated PR professionals to guide them through a variety of situations- crisis management, image makeovers, re-inventions, bad hair days, flops and hits.
Since 2009, Salman Khan has been and still is ruling the roost. He is the most in- demand actor, with almost 100% success rate at the box office. The actor is touted as the most bankable star of all, blessed with the Midas touch. An actor who till mid 2000’s was just another saleable star – good but erratic – has become a phenomenon of sorts with the Hindi film viewing public. Salman has managed to cover-up innumerable misdemeanors and bad behavior to emerge as the most sought after actor today. This transformation is seen as the most impactful turnaround in the Bombay film industry and in the film business in present times. A turn around that has been possible through a planned and orchestrated PR strategy.
What is celebrity PR?
Individuals aspiring to build their image have to think of creating an image in the minds of the viewing public. This is true for a corporate entity, a product or an individual. This is truer of actors whose profession it is to seek public approval more frequently than other professionals. With lots of luck and hard work one can be the next star actor or actress. The important aspect is that of marketing oneself. How does one go about marketing oneself in the field of entertainment? There are several ways to accomplish this. The main one would be to contact the local newspaper to see if the aspirant could speak to the event planner about putting a news release in the entertainment section. Novice actors just starting to make their presence felt in the industry are advised by the PR machinery to go about giving free performances at local hospitals and non-profit organizations and sometimes they are seen performing at parties. With the permission of the host they send a news release about the party to the local media and gather mileage. Actors are constantly told to remember that they are there to be noticed for something they have, that no one else can recreate-whether it’s their wild hair, or their funny personality- they must play up their strengths. They have to be known for the right reasons and leave a good impression that will be remembered.
The PR machinery is expected to do umpteen number of activities these days- from launching the fresh face, creating an exciting profile for the neophyte, getting media coverage, accompanying them to events, premiers and parties, coaching them on what to say and what not to, guiding them on who to associate with for career growth, handling controversies, thus the PR team is expected to handle everything. For the established stars it can be handling criticism and negative publicity, recreating and re-building an old and tired image, making the actor saleable and worthy of media write-ups. Today film stars pay huge amounts of money to their PR team to keep them in the public eye and win positive reactions from their audience. Be it an ugly divorce, a brawl in a public place, or being caught in-camera mouthing obscenities, PR professionals are experts at working around these incidents and are surprisingly successful in bringing about a complete turn around
The shelf life of celebrities is enhanced through constant visibility in the public eye. There are people within the PR industry designated for taking care of providing the same to their clients. A talent agent secures auditions for their actors. A talent agent might also manage the actor’s career. A publicist is an independent contractor who is hired either on a monthly basis, or is put on a retainer, or hired on the basis of the project-to generate publicity for the actor online and offline. A PR agent is someone who too is hired as an independent contractor, to manage one part or all of a public relations campaign. This can include publicity, crisis communications, ghost-writing, speech-writing, and so on. As professionals the talent agent, the publicist and the PR agent will help in doing the following things for the actor- establish credibility, enhance reputation, position the actor as an expert, sell the image of the actor, promote and establish the presence strongly.
Review of Literature
‘A PRO (public relations officer) is a media manipulator par excellence. The better the manipulator, the better the PR. We are living in times when perception is reality. PRO’s are the perception builders. They are the ones who make the world believe a lot of things the way they formulate and strategist. Their minds influence the minds of millions. That makes PRO’s no less than the new kings of this perception-driven world’- Dale Bhagwagar Bollywood’s lead public relations professional and winner of ‘Crossover Publicist of the Year’ award by the Suvidha Gaurav Achiever Awards Foundation in Mumbai. He handles the PR for some of Bollywood’s top celebrities including Hrithik Roshan, Shilpa Shetty, Vivek Oberoi and Randeep Hooda. It is evident from Dale Bhagwagar’s quote that PR professionals do not shy from using any tool if it means culling favour for their clients. The public in fact is a witness to innumerable instances of such machinations on the part of the PR team that take care of their client’s public persona. In recent months Salman Khan’s bad moods have been linked to his illness ‘neurelgia nervosa’ for which he has been receiving treatment. The actor’s PR team never tire of milking the situation to the maximum. The result is greater understanding from an impressionable audience. As Dale says it is a matter of perceptions. If you show a vulnerable side of the moody (often angry) hero, the audience succumbs easily and is won over.
‘Even though Salman is part of the ‘Khan Triumvirate’ with Aamir and Shahrukh, his stardom has always stood out. Salman possesses neither Aamir’s acting versatility nor Shahrukh’s on-screen charisma. Unlike the duo, he has seldom worked with top directors or big banners and has begun to be selective about his films only recently. Shahrukh started his career playing dark and unconventional roles in films like Baazigar, Darr and Anjaam but stopped experimenting after achieving stardom with big-budget entertainers like Dilwale Dulhaniya Le Jayenge and Kuch Kuch Hota Hai. His career now remains parked within the safe confines of corporate respectability and countless endorsements. An inventive professional and exceptional actor, Aamir Khan is the hero of urban multiplex audiences and as testified by the success of Satyamev Jayate, the new poster-boy for corporate social responsibility. Both are admirable icons for an optimistic and upwardly-mobile, post-liberalization generation spread across India and the diaspora. In contrast, a very large slice of Salman’s traditional fan-base is comprised of those for whom the changes unleashed by the forces of globalization did not accrue any immediate benefits. Provincial towns, suburban areas, urban slums and mohallas are spaces where Salman reigns. This is also a constituency that matters little to the multiplex economy. This expansive cross-class appeal is what makes Salman Khan’s stardom distinct’-‘The Irresistible Badness of Salman Khan’ by Shohini Ghosh , Professor at the AJK Mass Communication Research Centre, Jamia Millia Islamia. There is indeed a lot of truth in Shohini Ghosh’s observation. There is a clear demarcation between actors Aamir Khan and Shah Rukh Khan- a demarcation that is dependent on the kind of films the two make, the audience they make their films for, the issues the two actors choose to associate themselves with, all of which leave a sizeable portion of the Hindi film viewing audience bereft of an icon, a hero that they can call theirs. It is this space, left vacant by the offer mentioned actors, that Salman Khan has sought to conquer. He has succeeded remarkably through his choice of films, audience connectivity, media coverage and acts of charity- all faithfully reported by media thanks to his excellent PR team who make it worthwhile for media to report the same.
What gives now? Why are the educated embracing the one they once reviled? Why this sudden interest in the shirtless wonder of our times? Like everything else about Salman, it’s difficult to explain. The key to his persona lies in this unpredictability, the fact that he is the ultimate bundle of contradictions. “His stardom is a collage of confusions,” says Shiv Visvanathan. “He’s ruthless yet affectionate, threatening yet nurturing.” He’s given mind-boggling blockbusters and interspersed them with series of even bigger flops. Every Wanted has been followed by Veer and Main aur Mrs Khanna. “He has experienced notoriety just as he has seen fame,” says Shohini. Salman might drive rashly and kill a person on the pavement yet runs a charity for the destitute, Being Human.
He can endear himself to women with his protective nature and put them off just as easily by being domineering. He may hunt for black-bucks but be deeply secular. He is known to charge a royal packet for various public appearances, but none of it goes into his own account; it funds his social work. “He’s not the unbeatable hero like Aamir, nor is he the poster boy of corporate like SRK. The dark side of him represents the complexity of our times,” says Shohini. “He’s not crafted like SRK, nor intellectual like Aamir. He’s primordial and flawed,” says Visvanathan. And it’s this aspect which has begun to fan interest. His series of appearances on TV shows and spontaneous interaction with the fans have also begun to endear’ – Namrata Joshi, Outlook.
Ms.Joshi’s questions about the viewers’ sudden interest in Salman Khan find an echo in most people who seem to be wondering the same. The social commentators like Shiv Vishvanathan and Shohini Ghosh are of the opinion that the contradictory nature of the actor ensures public interest and fan following, which may be true since film audiences like this unpredictable nature of their hero.
SRK– Abbreviation for actor Shah Rukh Khan
Aamir– Actor Aamir Khan
Shiv Vishvanathan– Social commentator
Shohini Gosh– Professor, Jamia Milia Islamia
Some of the promotion methods deployed are public relations triumphs. Salman Khan, from being termed as the bad boy of the Hindi film industry is now touted as a very caring man, who through Being Human is trying to help and reach out to the underprivileged sections of society. A chequered past and a shaky future, to say the least, people are still reminiscent of his hunting and rash driving days. Scrutinized by the media from day one, it is only in the last two-three years that his career graph seems to have moved northwards, as the Being Human campaign became an essential part of who he is -correcting things, especially his image. He has emerged a hero with a heart and his recent outings have also reflected this very same image; through the earthy and simple characters he has chosen to portray. The man in red pants, which seem to become synonymous with Salman, and his irreverent humour, are a far cry from the bad boy tag that he was saddled with for quite a while. A smart new take on the classic way of reel meets real. In the fast changing and ever evolving news scene, remaining relevant is often challenging and also calls for reinventing oneself constantly, as the people consuming news and their likes, have short memories. All of them vie for attention and therefore only the shiniest ones stand out– Image Management, online PR consultants. This article indicates strongly that the PR machinery working for a positive image of its client uses all the resources within its control to swing opinions in favour of concerned actor just like it has done for actor Salman Khan
Being Human Foundation- the organization established by actor Salman Khan (2007) to create a platform for his charity and other social responsibility related activities.
The research methods that researchers use to help them understand the world of Public Relations are different ways of knowing that world. At a simplistic level, qualitative methods tend to be associated with words as a unit of analysis, whereas quantitative methods tend to be linked with numbers. Whether researchers choose to apply qualitative or quantitative methods, each is often linked to a particular worldview related to the nature of knowledge. The two worldviews or paradigms which inform most of the research in Public Relations are interpretative and the realist (positivist). Each has different assumptions about the nature of managed communication and how it can be accessed. Qualitative methods tend to be associated with the interpretative worldview. The concern here is towards the way people make sense of their social worlds and how they express these understandings through language, personal style and social rituals. In contrast to the interpretative/qualitative stance, quantitative approach assumes that reality is an objective, observable entity which is independent of those involved in it. This approach stresses on objectivity. Quantitative techniques attempt to distance the researcher from the data; in terms of collection- preferring a survey to anecdotes of respondents; also in analyzing data, where numbers and statistics are preferred to words and language.
The present study has utilized two qualitative methods to get the primary data- the Expert interview and the Focus group discussion. Secondary data has been attained through existing literature on the said topic which includes books, research journals, newspaper and magazine articles, blogs and online research material.
The duration of the research was six months, conducted in Bangalore.
Focus Group Discussion
A focus group discussion helps public relations and marketing communication researchers to get substantial understanding of issues in a detailed manner. The focus group does not rely merely on the ideas of the researcher and a single participant, instead questions and answers are produced by members of the group. The Focus group discussion provides evidence from many voices on the topic at hand. It is interactive. The discussion provides a platform for erstwhile suppressed views and opinions. This method also enables in getting data quickly. One of the reasons for choosing a focus group discussion is that it provides an opportunity for presenting diverse perceptions, judgements and experiences. It is ideal for providing access to people who generally avoid research because of their inherent skepticism as regards research. The ultimate goal of a focus group discussion is to see the topic from all perspectives, specially that of the participants and not the researcher.
The expert interview is a useful form of data collection since it allows the researcher to explore the perspectives and perceptions of the domain/field expert which the casual respondent does not have. Often called ‘conversation with a purpose’ the interview is more than that. Through the interview the researcher can get the opinion of people who are experienced in the field and who add the much needed depth to the data. On the rare occasion, the expert is able to draw attention to points of significance which the researcher may not be aware of or is unaware of the significance itself. Further, experts from the industry or socio-cultural organizations have access to information that all cannot have. The expert’s opinion also validates the findings and conclusion.
Focus group discussion
A focus group discussion was conducted comprising of twelve media students who were familiar with the concepts of Public Relations. The students were keen watchers of Hindi films and had watched many films of actor Salman Khan. They were chosen with care, in that they were not fans of Salman Khan but were avid watchers of Hindi films irrespective of the actors working in the film. This assured minimal bias in student opinion.
On the question of the general standards of Hindi films today the group was in agreement that with regard to the kind of films being made they had nothing to complain and for the most part everything was good and as an audience they were more or less satisfied with the quality of films. On Salman Khan’s star power, with one or two exceptions the rest of the group were of the opinion that the actor had enormous star power and that he was number one in the Hindi film industry today. With regard to the roles Salman Khan was playing in recent years the group agreed that he was choosing to be the good guy in all his films and was no longer willing to do a negative role or a hero with negative shades. Even if he did portray a guy who had shortcomings they were presented in a loving manner to endear to the masses. As to whether Salman chose his roles to benefit his ‘real’ life, the students agreed he did, but so did others and that one should not blame only Salman for being an opportunist. On the story line of Salman’s films the group was divided, while one half of the group said story-lines were varied in his films, the other half of the group said it was more or less the same or similar in all his movies. The group had an equal number of female and male participants, deliberately done so by the researcher to give equal weight-age to both the sexes and find gender differences if any. While the female participants said they had no special parameter while watching a Salman Khan film, the male participants said they looked forward to clap-worthy dialogues, seeing a great deal of action and were keen on watching Salman’s physique. The female respondents were of the opinion that Salman never portrayed his heroines in a sexual manner nor did he share an overtly sexual relationship with his heroines on screen. The female respondents were of the opinion that Salman, contrary to media presentations, was a gentleman with regard to women. When it came to the question of Salman Khan wooing his audience, the group was of the opinion that he did not play favorites, in that he did not seek out audience based upon religious leanings, nor did he use the ‘religion’ card as an excuse to get success. On his films being released on the Eid week, the group saw good marketing strategy on the part of the film makers and chose to ignore the actor’s involvement in the decision. All the members of the group were aware of Salman Khan’s legal problems. On his acrimonious breakup with actress Aishwarya Rai the group opined that it was a lot more exaggeration than truth. Regarding the drunken-driving-pedestrian-killing issue, majority of the group said the best way to look at it would be as an accident and that such mistakes happen in life. On the black buck issue the group was of the opinion that Salman Khan had not been the sole perpetrator of the crime since there were others from the ‘Hum Saath Saath Hain’ film unit, who had to share the responsibility of the crime. The actor’s innumerable fights with different members of the Hindi film industry like Shah Rukh Khan, Vivek Oberoi, Sanjay Leela Bansali, Hrithic Roshan to name a few, were seen by the group as a thing of the past. While the female participants made a token gesture of acknowledging his brush with the law none had any qualms about his presence as an actor. The male participants knew of his legal problems but were vociferous in their support to the actor and were of the opinion that the actor was more wronged than wronging. A few were also of the opinion that the problem was a media created one rather than an actual one. The group agreed that Salman Khan had become a changed person the past six years but could not decide as to whether this was a calculated PR tactic or a genuine and a natural phase of an actor. The group was familiar with the charitable/social work done by Salman Khan and did not link the same with his changing status and presence in the industry. The ‘Being Human Foundation’ a brainchild of the actor was vouchsafed by the group as being a genuine gesture on the actor’s part. The respondents were aware of the actor’s charity to many causes like research in pediatric illnesses, waiver of hospital expenses of the poor, education of the underprivileged child, helping cancer and AIDS patients. The group was aware of Salman Khan’s skill as a painter and the fact that he gave the proceeds of the sale of the paintings to charity. The group was of the opinion that Salman was a Good Samaritan and not the bad man the media showcased him to be. After a point in the discussion the actor’s wrongdoings were blurred by his various good deeds.
Noveena Bothaju, Senior Public Relations Consultant at Edelmen Worldwide (the company has handled many press conferences for the actor) spoke extensively about the increasing impact of public relations strategies used by corporate entities and celebrities in recent times. According to Ms. Bothaju, Public Relations is somewhat like investment banking, in that where investment banking takes care of the client’s money/finances and tries to double the assets of the said client, PR strategists constantly seek to better the image and public persona of the client. Both the fields put the client first. She says that PR is all about building a brand as in the case of a new company, a new product or an individual who is a fresh face in the field. It could be giving a totally new look to an old existing brand, this can be done to create a shift of perception in the minds of the public about the entity going for such a shift, either to increase the market share or woo a new and younger client base. PR is useful in creating a positive buzz around a company/ product/ individual to cover-up past negativities. She stated that over the years most celebrities, specially film stars were making use of PR professionals to promote and market themselves since PR strategies were long term, subtle, have greater credibility and therefore have a better success rate with the audience. Ms. Novena believes that PR has the power to convince people to accept certain facts with greater ease compared to advertisements. As there is no direct money transaction, since PR is not paid for like advertisements, people are more acceptable towards PR messages. She says the term experiential marketing is often used to indicate PR. Actors may be good, they maybe doing good work but unless their audiences are made aware of these things the actors cannot expect long term recall value and without recall value actors lose their presence. Since it’s a numbers game at the top only those actors who are in the news, for good or bad reasons, command due attention of the film producers and big studios. It is not possible for actors to reach out to their audience on their own merit. They need the PR team to work towards that goal diligently. The PR team organizes the press meets and conferences, makes sure the actor gets to interact with fans through a gala or other social event that will capture the attention of millions of film viewers and the curiosity of the media. The PR network will ensure that the media is informed about such planned events and dos. An actor like Salman Khan till a few years ago would shun the media, but with a good PR team to advice him he seems to woo the media these days. She said just before the release of his film ‘Dabang-2’ the actor was seen on almost every channel talking very little about his film but more on sundry social issues proving his magnanimity and winning plus points for himself. Salman Khan, never a political person surprised many when he took it upon himself to comment on the treatment given to Sarabjit Singh (who had been incarcerated in a Pakistan jail for suspected spying). This was on the advice of the PR team that wanted to send the signal to the world that there was more to Salman Khan than a good physique and films. This accounts for much of Salman Khan’s changed behaviour in recent years. After Salman Khan’s fall out with co-actor Shah Rukh Khan , Salman had nothing positive to say about Shah Rukh Khan; of late however Salman seems to have mellowed towards SRK.. This is a tactical move on Salman’s part to show himself to be tolerant and forgiving. Novena surmised that this was definitely on PR advice. The actor’s image needed a change from the constant fight mode to a mature one. She calls it damage control. The actor is sincerely using all resources to bring the turn around in his image, which seems to be working. The roles he seems to be essaying in films, be it Chulbul Pandey of the Dabang series where it is similar to Robin Hood, or the products he seems to be endorsing- the latest advertisement (a brand of men’s inner-wear) shows the actor fighting for the underdog- all are clever moves on the part of the PR team managing the actor’s image. One of the reasons why he is shown as being protective of his heroines these days account for greater positive buzz. The media comes up with names such as Rambo of Bollywood, Bhai of Bollywood or Box Office King to boost the status of the actor constantly. The actor is very visible in the media today, he is more media friendly; he is seen and heard more these days than he ever was even in his younger days. Ms. Bothaju said that where once the actor did a few advertisements earlier, he endorses more than a dozen products today. All these things go to prove that Salman Khan’s PR is guiding him at every stage taking care to leave no stone un-turned when it comes to getting the star positive vibes from the media, his colleagues in the industry and the most important element the viewing public. According to Ms. Bothaju, the PR agents bring in a lot of professionalism and quality to the strategies; they in fact deliver good service that is in demand today. Under the aegis of his Being Human Foundation the actor has recently sent 2400 tankers to draught hit Aurangabad. The charity no doubt may be genuine, the fact that the PR team working for the actor notifies the media about all these activities, is good strategy. This is the future of celebrity PR. All top actors are using PR to get maximum mileage these days. Novena spoke about actors like Sanjay Dutt, Hrithic Roshan, Amithab Bachchan who depend more on PR than anything else. Actors willingly give interviews, come on reality shows, endorse non- commercial products, associate themselves with NGOs, only to ensure visibility and success.
Dale Bhagwagar, celebrity PR consultant Dale Consultancy, on being asked (via e-mail) about Salman Khan’s present changed status simply said that the image of an actor or any celebrity is a question of perception, that can be managed through PR.
Sarabjit Singh- the Indian prisoner in Pakistan who died recently due to physical violence in the jail.
Box Office– the term used for counter sales.
It is clear from the different secondary sources that celebrity public relations has come a long way since its early days. It is no longer that simple, cheap or easy. It is a complex process of time consuming strategist, to enable celebrities get the best for the money they invest in this. From the newspaper articles on celebrity PR and publicity it is evident that actors are beginning to exploit the field of PR to the maximum, to avail of all the benefits. Good public relations can receive a great deal of positive vibes from people since PR is a field that enjoys a certain amount of credibility compared to other tools of promotion.
From the focus group discussion it is clear that actor Salman Khan has a great fan following among the young Hindi film viewers. The little negativity that existed in the past has been removed through his PR oriented activities. The focus group participants remember and recall Salman Khan’s charity, his Good Samaritan moves, rather than his wild behavior. The viewers are aware of Salman Khan’s controversial image. They do not give too much credence to it in the light of his box office success. They love him for what he is on screen. His roles are liked and relished. So convincing has been his PR that they no longer pay attention to the controversies. It seems to be adding to the rustic flavor of the actor. He is like any one of them- talented and tainted, yet endearing. They go to see a Salman Khan film for his sake.
The expert interview drives home the importance of PR tactics in enabling an actor to start afresh and build a new image. This has certainly happened in the case of Salman Khan.
The turn around that has come about in Salman Khan’s career is clearly due to the PR initiative of his team. Through a carefully orchestrated strategy of PR the actor has become the darling of the masses. His success owes a lot to the changed public persona exhibited by media. His career graph till 2006 was erratic at best, with Being Human Foundation established in 2007 and his many a philanthropic work his career has gone on an upswing proving that PR works. Through choice interviews, media placements and events the actor has succeeded in making people forget his murky past. The turn around from being the ‘Bad Boy to Poster Boy’ has indeed been made.
Controversies- rash and negligent driving (2002), actress Aishwarya Rai’s accused him of harassing her (2003), Khan was sentenced to one year in prison for hunting the Chinkara, an endangered species (2006), comments on 26/11 attacks – media and government was cited by the actor for showing interest in the attacks because of elites being involved- later apologized (2010).
- Coombs, Timothy W. (2007). It’s Not Just PR- Public Relations in Society. Blackwell Publishing, USA.
- Daymon, Christine and Immy Holloway. (2003). Qualitative Research Methods in Public Relations and Marketing Communications. Routledge, London.
- Giannini, Gaetan T. (2011). Marketing Public Relations. Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi.
- Mishra, Ashish K and Shishir Prasad.Being Salman. Forbes India, February 8, 2013- 94-97.
- Pinskey, Raleigh. (1995). You Can Hype Anything. Carol Publishing Group, New York.
- Ries, Al and Laura Ries. (2002). The Fall of Advertising and the Rise of PR. HarperCollins Publishers Inc., New York.
- Sitrick, Michael S. (1998). Spin- How to Turn the Power of the Press to your Advantage. Regnery Publishing, Washington DC.
- Stauber, John and Sheldon Rampton. (1995). Toxic Sludge is Good for You- Lies, Damn Lies and the Public Relations Industry. Common Courage Press, Maine.
- http://nvonews.com/2013/01/18/bigg-boss-6-over-salman-khan-lords-over-bollywood-silver-screen/ Bigg Boss 6 over: Salman Khan lords over Bollywood, silver screen
- http://www.planetbollywood.com/2012/11displayArticle.php?id= s041408095043
- http://forbesindia.com/2012/12 article/cross-border/public-relation-in-india-is-taking-the-flack/21682/1
- http://publicrelationsideas.com/2012/11publicity_tips_for_actors_and_ actresses_000571.html
- Bothuja, Noveena. Personal interview via telephone on 6th May, 2013
- Focus Group Discussion involving Media students on 23rd November, 2012